linux 格式化硬盘

首先要确认你的分区表格式,如果你是gpt的请使用gdisk,如果是mbr的请使用fdisk

分区

fdisk /dev/sda
输入o建立dos分区表
输入n建立一个新的分区
输入p建立一个主分区,或者输入e建立一个逻辑分区
之后输入分区号码mbr只能建立4个主分区,gpt可以建立128个主分区
然后选择分区的起始扇区
然后选择分区的末扇区
之后就建立好了
就像下面

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➜  ~ fdisk /dev/sda

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.25.2).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.


Command (m for help): m

Help:

DOS (MBR)
a toggle a bootable flag
b edit nested BSD disklabel
c toggle the dos compatibility flag

Generic
d delete a partition
l list known partition types
n add a new partition
p print the partition table
t change a partition type
v verify the partition table

Misc
m print this menu
u change display/entry units
x extra functionality (experts only)

Save & Exit
w write table to disk and exit
q quit without saving changes

Create a new label
g create a new empty GPT partition table
G create a new empty SGI (IRIX) partition table
o create a new empty DOS partition table
s create a new empty Sun partition table


Command (m for help): o
Created a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x2ef7679c.

Command (m for help): n
Partition type
p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
e extended (container for logical partitions)
Select (default p): p
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 1
First sector (2048-30965759, default 2048):
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (2048-30965759, default 30965759):

Created a new partition 1 of type 'Linux' and of size 14.8 GiB.

默认的分区类型是linux,如果你要改变,比如变成swap类型
先输入t
然后选择分区号码
输入L能查看所有的分区类型
然后输入分区类型前面的数字或字母比如swap是82
像下面

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Command (m for help): t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list all codes): L

0 Empty 24 NEC DOS 81 Minix / old Lin bf Solaris
1 FAT12 27 Hidden NTFS Win 82 Linux swap / So c1 DRDOS/sec (FAT-
2 XENIX root 39 Plan 9 83 Linux c4 DRDOS/sec (FAT-
3 XENIX usr 3c PartitionMagic 84 OS/2 hidden C: c6 DRDOS/sec (FAT-
4 FAT16 <32M 40 Venix 80286 85 Linux extended c7 Syrinx
5 Extended 41 PPC PReP Boot 86 NTFS volume set da Non-FS data
6 FAT16 42 SFS 87 NTFS volume set db CP/M / CTOS / .
7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT 4d QNX4.x 88 Linux plaintext de Dell Utility
8 AIX 4e QNX4.x 2nd part 8e Linux LVM df BootIt
9 AIX bootable 4f QNX4.x 3rd part 93 Amoeba e1 DOS access
a OS/2 Boot Manag 50 OnTrack DM 94 Amoeba BBT e3 DOS R/O
b W95 FAT32 51 OnTrack DM6 Aux 9f BSD/OS e4 SpeedStor
c W95 FAT32 (LBA) 52 CP/M a0 IBM Thinkpad hi eb BeOS fs
e W95 FAT16 (LBA) 53 OnTrack DM6 Aux a5 FreeBSD ee GPT
f W95 Ext'd (LBA) 54 OnTrackDM6 a6 OpenBSD ef EFI (FAT-12/16/
10 OPUS 55 EZ-Drive a7 NeXTSTEP f0 Linux/PA-RISC b
11 Hidden FAT12 56 Golden Bow a8 Darwin UFS f1 SpeedStor
12 Compaq diagnost 5c Priam Edisk a9 NetBSD f4 SpeedStor
14 Hidden FAT16 <3 61 SpeedStor ab Darwin boot f2 DOS secondary
16 Hidden FAT16 63 GNU HURD or Sys af HFS / HFS+ fb VMware VMFS
17 Hidden HPFS/NTF 64 Novell Netware b7 BSDI fs fc VMware VMKCORE
18 AST SmartSleep 65 Novell Netware b8 BSDI swap fd Linux raid auto
1b Hidden W95 FAT3 70 DiskSecure Mult bb Boot Wizard hid fe LANstep
1c Hidden W95 FAT3 75 PC/IX be Solaris boot ff BBT
1e Hidden W95 FAT1 80 Old Minix
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 82
Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux swap / Solaris'.

最后所有的分区完了之后输入w保存

格式化分区

这个很简单比如你要格式化成ext4格式的
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
如果你要格式化swap分区
mkswap /dev/sda1

挂载分区

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

启用swap分区

swapon /dev/sda1

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